EC6C. Stay Current—Carbon in the Biosphere

cover for GSS book Ecosystem Change

Staying current for Chapter 6

See also articles from
{2009–2021}-{2002–2008}

{ Ecosystem Change Contents }

Excellent video (15 minutes): Mountain Lions in Nebraska (2011) 

Latest articles (2022)

2022-08-22. A 19th century farmer may be to blame for Australia’s rabbit scourge. [https://www.science.org/content/article/19th-century-farmer-may-be-blame-australia-s-rabbit-scourge] By Jack Tamaisiea, Science Magazine. Excerpt: On Christmas Day 1859, a shipment of 24 rabbits arrived in Melbourne, Australia, from England. The bunnies were a gift for Thomas Austin, a wealthy English settler who aimed to establish a colony of the creatures on his Australian estate. …Just 3 years later, thousands of his European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were hopping about. By 1865, Austin would boast to the local paper of killing some 20,000 bunnies on his property, where he hosted rabbit hunting parties for English royalty such as Queen Victoria’s son, Prince Alfred. …Austin’s bunnies were the ones that came to dominate the continent, a new study finds. About 200 million rabbits now wreak havoc on crops and native plants, causing $200 million a year in agricultural damage. And nearly all of them, researchers conclude, can be traced back to the fateful shipment Austin received in 1859. To unravel how the rabbit plague began, Francis Jiggins, a geneticist at the University of Cambridge, and his colleagues analyzed the genetics of 187 rabbit specimens collected across Australia. They also tested potential source populations in England and France and a handful of rabbits from Tasmania and New Zealand, places that experienced their own devastating rabbit invasions.…

2022-08-15. Two New York Times articles about positive effects of invasive species: Death Valley’s Invasive Donkeys Have Become Cat Food [https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/15/science/invasive-species-pigs-crocodiles.html] by Asher Elbein – Feral burros wreck wetlands in the desert national park. But a study found that when mountain lions prey on them, the donkeys may help some terrain thrive…. and Pigs to the Rescue: An Invasive Species Helped Save Australia’s Crocodiles [https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/15/science/invasive-species-pigs-crocodiles.html] by Anthony Ham – Invasive species can damage the ecosystems they wind up in. But in parts of the world, endangered predators make hearty meals out of them.…

2022-08-10. From 300,000 rabbits to none: a Southern Ocean island is reborn. [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/aug/10/rats-and-rabbits-invasive-species-macquarie-island-southern-ocean-aoe] By Zoe Kean, The Guardian. Excerpt: On a world map, Macquarie Island is a speck in the Southern Ocean, but for ecologists it is a beacon, illuminating a future for grand-scale environmental recovery projects. Melissa Houghton first set foot on the 34km-long green streak as a dog handler in late 2011. Rabbits, cats, rats and mice had been introduced by sealers in the 1800s and were wreaking havoc on the world heritage site. At their peak, there were approximately 300,000 European rabbits and an untold number of black rats and house mice. During their trip, Houghton and a labrador named Wags found what would prove to be the last vertebrate pests left on the island: an adult rabbit and her young. In 2014, Macquarie was declared pest free, the largest island to successfully eliminate rabbits to date. Ten years after Wags sniffed out the last rabbit, the island has sprung back to life, and Houghton has stuck around to witness the change. She gave up dog handling, became a scientist and completed her PhD as part of the research team monitoring the island’s resurgence. …Houghton remembers being “blown away” by her first views of Macquarie Island after a three-day voyage south from Tasmania in 2011. Its beaches were crowded with hulking elephant seals and raucous colonies of endemic royal penguins. But Keith Springer, who was leading the Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Project, warned her that beyond the beaches the once biodiverse and unique island was so damaged that it was “nothing but a pretty paddock”. …Typically after an eradication scientists tend to assess how one charismatic species has responded to the pests’ removal. But Shaw is interested in how the island is responding as a whole ecosystem. “It’s not like someone turns the lights on and it’s back to normal. It’s actually quite a staggered response,” she says.…

2022-08-04. Fiery Invasions. [https://www.science.org/content/article/flammable-invasive-grasses-increasing-risk-devastating-wildfires] By Warren Cornwall, Science Magazine. Excerpt: Around the world, flammable invasive grasses are increasing the risks of damaging wildfires. For decades, eastern Oregon’s scablands—rocky patches of open terrain—were a refuge for people fighting wildfires in the surrounding forests. The thin soil and sparse vegetation offered little fuel for the flames, creating an oasis from which firefighters could operate and a barrier that could help halt a fire’s spread. That all changed in 2015. After lightning sparked a fire near a steep-walled canyon, the blaze unexpectedly raced across scablands so quickly that firefighters struggled to catch up. …shin-high grass known as Ventenata dubia. The plant created shaggy golden carpets of dry foliage, transforming once fire-resistant scablands into flame-friendly corridors. …In northern Australia, invasive gamba grass from Africa fuels intense blazes that rip through eucalyptus groves. In Brazil, molasses grass from Africa turns vast swaths of the savanna known as the Cerrado into fire-prone grassland. In the western United States, two Old World grasses are creating ecological mayhem: Buffelgrass feeds fires in the Sonoran Desert that torch iconic saguaro cacti, while blaze-tolerant cheatgrass crowds out native sagebrush in the high desert known as the Great Basin.…

2022-07-01. The Giant African Land Snail Has Been Spotted Again in Florida. [https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/01/us/giant-african-land-snail-florida.html] By Patricia Mazzei, The New York Times. Excerpt: …The dreaded snails — known to invasive-species connoisseurs as GALS — were spotted in June by a gardener in Pasco County, north of Tampa, the first time a population of them has been detected outside of South Florida. To try to contain them, state officials placed a portion of Pasco County in the New Port Richey area under quarantine this week. No plants, yard waste, debris, compost or building materials can lawfully be moved out without permission, for fear that the clingy mollusks will spread. …Giant African land snails typically “like humid, and they like dense vegetation.” “Of course, in areas that are irrigated, like in nurseries or in home landscapes, they will be perfectly happy,” he added. Giant African land snails are “one of the most invasive pests on the planet,” according to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. They eat more than 500 types of plants — and also feed on stucco, “as a source of calcium.” They hide in cool, damp places during the day, feed at night and lay many thousands of eggs over their lifetimes. Some snails can grow to eight inches long and five inches wide. They can also carry a parasite, rat lungworm, that causes meningitis in humans and animals — if, say, people eat unwashed lettuce or other produce that the carrier snail has slid across, leaving behind a trail of slime.…

2022-06-23. Largest ever Burmese python in Florida found in Collier County. [https://news.wgcu.org/2022-06-23/largest-ever-burmese-python-in-florida-found-in-collier-county] By Hayley Lemery, WGCU PBS and NPR for Southwest Florida. Excerpt: The largest Burmese python ever discovered in Florida was captured from the Everglades and brought to the Conservancy of Southwest Florida for research. The female python, weighing in at 215 pounds and 18 feet long, had 122 eggs inside of her, which is the largest egg count ever recorded for a python. The Conservancy’s python program has been conducting research since 2013 to understand the invasive species …. “We feel like it’s a win when we can target animals of this size. Remove them from the bioregion, repeat. Each season this crew removes tons of python. This was a two-ton season,” said Ian Bartoszek, wildlife biologist and python project manager for the Conservancy. …“The last meal this animal had was a white-tailed deer in Picayune Strand State Forest,” Bartoszek said. The team discovered this during their necropsy by finding hoof cores in the python’s digestive track. Researchers estimate the deer was around 75 pounds. “This team has been radio tracking invasive Burmese pythons for about the last 10 years, learning about their behaviors so we can find out methods to more effectively remove them from the ecosystem,” Bartoszek said.…

2022-06-12. Fish leather is here, it’s sustainable – and it’s made from invasive species to boot. [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/jun/12/fish-leather-lionfish-sustainable-invasive-species] By Richard Luscombe, The Guardian. Excerpt: Aarav Chavda has been diving off the coast of Florida for years. Each time he became increasingly depressed by the ever-growing void, as colourful species of fish and coral reefs continued to disappear. A significant reason for that disappearance is the lionfish, an invasive species that has boomed in Atlantic waters from Florida to the Caribbean in recent decades, and in numerous other places from Brazil and Mexico to the Mediterranean. Lionfish have no natural predators outside their native range – in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and the Red Sea – and are all-consuming, devouring an estimated 79% of young marine life within five weeks of entering a coral reef system. …Chavda and a team of ecologically aware fellow scuba enthusiasts decided to act by establishing Inversa, which turns lionfish into a new product: fish leather. On Wednesday, World Oceans Day, the team was recognised as one of nine finalists in the Global Ocean Resilience Innovation Challenge (Oric).…

2022-01-14. Ecuador expands protections around Galápagos, creating ‘a new highway’ for sea life. By Dino Grandoni, The Washington Post. Excerpt: The South American government will curb fishing in more than 20,000 square miles of ocean next to the archipelago, which is treasured for its abundance of wildlife.… [https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-solutions/2022/01/14/ecuador-galpagos-sea-animals-protection/]

See: articles from 2002–2008.