About Science Education Standards

Although development of Global Systems Science began long before even the National Science Education Standards (NSES),  it still addresses many of the standards even in the current era of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). 

We are working on a useful mappings of GSS material to NGSS performance expectations, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science & engineering practices. Latest examples are on this page.

GSS alignment with
NGSS performance expectations

Abbreviations for the modules:

white space
NWV = A New World ViewEU = Energy UseCC = Climate ChangeOZ = Ozone
LB = Losing BiodiversityLC = Life and ClimateEC = Ecosystem ChangeEF = Energy Flow
PG = Population GrowthACC = A Changing CosmosDEW = Digital Earth Watch 
GSS Modules:Performance Expectations NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-ETS1-1 Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.        
HS-ETS1-2 Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.          
HS-ETS1-3 Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.         
HS-ETS1-4 Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.          
HS-ESS1-1 Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.          
GSS Modules:NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-ESS1-5 Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.           
HS-ESS2-1 . Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.          
HS-ESS2-3 Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.          
HS-ESS2-4 Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth systems result in changes in climate.          
HS-ESS2-6 Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.          
HS-ESS2-7 Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth systems and life on Earth.          
GSS Modules:NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-ESS3-2 Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios.          
HS-ESS3-3 Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.            
HS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.          
HS-ESS3-5 Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems.           
HS-ESS3-6 Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.           
HS-LS1-5 Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.           
GSS Modules:NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-LS2-1 Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.         
HS-LS2-2 Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.        
HS-LS2-3 Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.           
HS-LS2-4 Use a mathematical representation to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.         
HS-LS2-5 Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, at mosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.           
HS-LS2-6 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.        
GSS Modules:NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-LS2-7 Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.        
HS-LS3-1 Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.           
HS-LS3-3 Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.           
HS-PS2-5 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.          
HS-PS3-3 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.           
HS-PS3-4 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).          
GSS Modules:NWVEUCCOZLBLCECEFPGACCDEW
HS-PS3-5 Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.          
HS-PS4-4 Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.          
HS-PS4-5 Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.          

Legacy Standards Analyses

For the record:
GSS and National Science Education Standards (NSES)

Development of Global Systems Science began long before even the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were developed, yet it addresses many of the standards even to this era of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). 

Here are the original mappings of GSS to NSES (.xls files):

  1. New World View
  2. Climate Change
  3. Life and Climate
  4. Ozone
  5. Losing Biodiversity
  6. Energy Flow
  7. Ecosystem Change
  8. Population Growth
  9. Energy Use
  10. [ALL]

There are 4 columns in each of the above .xls documents:

Column 1
Code: GSS book, chapter, and page #
Column 2
Relevant Quote from GSS book
Column 3
Code: NSES Chapter, page #, section subheading, and bullet number.
Column 4
Relevant quote from NSES.

Correlations of GSS with State Standards

California Science Education Standards (CSES)

  1. New World View
  2. Climate Change
  3. Life and Climate
  4. Ozone
  5. Losing Biodiversity
  6. Energy Flow
  7. Ecosystem Change
  8. Population Growth
  9. Energy Use

Florida’s Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS)

  1. New World View
  2. Climate Change
  3. Life and Climate
  4. Ozone
  5. Losing Biodiversity
  6. Energy Flow
  7. Ecosystem Change
  8. Population Growth
  9. Energy Use

GSS and MAINE’S LEARNING RESULTS (MLR grades 9–12)

Using the GSS Modules As A Curriculum Framework To Meet State Standards”, by Dalene Dutton, MMSA NASA Teacher Associate

MLR’s (9-12)Standard A: Classifying Life Forms
A1A2A3
A New World ViewXX
Climate ChangeX
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow 
Energy Use
Human Population Impact
Life and ClimateX
Losing Biodiversity
Ozone
MLR’s (9-12)Standard B: Ecology
B1B2B3B4
A New World ViewXX
Climate ChangeXXX
Ecosystem ChangeXXXX
Energy Flow X
Energy UseX
Human Population ImpactXX
Life and ClimateX
Losing BiodiversityXX
OzoneX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard C: Cells
C1C2C3C4C5
A New World View
Climate Change
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow 
Energy Use
Human Population Impact
Life and Climate
Losing Biodiversity
OzoneX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard D: Continuity and Change
D1D2D3D4D5D6D7
A New World ViewX
Climate ChangeX
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow 
Energy Use
Human Population Impact
Life and ClimateXX
Losing BiodiversityXX
OzoneX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard E: Structure Of Matter
E1E2E3E4E5E6E7
A New World View
Climate ChangeXXXX
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow X
Energy UseXXX
Human Population Impact
Life and ClimateXX
Losing Biodiversity
Ozone
MLR’s (9-12)Standard F: The Earth
F1F2F3F4F5F6
A New World ViewX
Climate ChangeXXX
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow XX
Energy UseX
Human Population Impact
Life and ClimateXXXX
Losing Biodiversity
OzoneX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard G: The Universe
G1G2G3
A New World View
Climate Change
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow X
Energy Use
Human Population Impact
Life and Climate
Losing Biodiversity
Ozone
MLR’s (9-12)Standard H: Energy
H1H2H3H4H5H6H7H8H9
A New World View
Climate ChangeXXX
Ecosystem ChangeX
Energy Flow XXX
Energy UseXXXXXX
Human Population Impact
Life and Climate
Losing Biodiversity
Ozone
MLR’s (9-12)Standard I: Motion
I1I2I3I4I5I6
A New World View
Climate ChangeXX
Ecosystem Change
Energy Flow X
Energy UseX
Human Population Impact
Life and Climate
Losing Biodiversity
Ozone
MLR’s (9-12)Standard J: Inquiry and Problem Solving
J1J2J3J4
A New World ViewXX
Climate ChangeXXX
Ecosystem ChangeXX
Energy Flow 
Energy UseXXX
Human Population ImpactXX
Life and Climate
Losing BiodiversityXX
OzoneX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard K: Scientific Reasoning
K1K2K3K4K5K6
A New World ViewXX
Climate ChangeXXXXX
Ecosystem ChangeXXX
Energy Flow X
Energy UseXXXXX
Human Population ImpactXXX
Life and ClimateXX
Losing BiodiversityX
OzoneXX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard L: Communication
L1L2L3L4L5L6L7L8
A New World ViewXXX
Climate Change
Ecosystem ChangeXXX
Energy Flow 
Energy UseXX
Human Population ImpactXXX
Life and Climate
Losing BiodiversityXX
OzoneXX
MLR’s (9-12)Standard M: Implications of Science and Technology
M1M2M3M4M5M6
A New World ViewXX
Climate ChangeXXX
Ecosystem ChangeXX
Energy Flow X
Energy UseXXX
Human Population ImpactXXXX
Life and ClimateX
Losing BiodiversityX
OzoneXXXXX

Dalene Dutton included a much more detailed analysis for each of the GSS books. Here is one example:

A New World View

Standard A: Classifying Life Forms
A (9-12) #2: Describe similarities and differences among organisms within each level of the taxonomic system for classifying organisms (kingdom through species).
SourceHow AddressedComments
SG Chapter 4ReadingText touches on how species can differ in their toxicity even though they may be closely related, or similar in appearance.
A (9-12) #3: Analyze the basic characteristics of living things, including their need for food, water, and gases and the ability to reproduce.
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents create an “ecosystem” in a bottle and monitor it s progress over an extended period of time.
SG Chapter 3ReadingAn essay on the importance of old growth forests and their role in providing the basics for other species.
SG Chapter 4ReadingThe chapter describes the Wind River Canopy project and some of the interactions of wildlife being studied.
SG Chapter 5InvestigationStudents analyze the “ecosytem” they created.
Standard B: Ecology
B (9-12) #1: Illustrate the cycles of matter in the environment and explain their interrelationships. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents create an “ecosystem” in a bottle and monitor it s progress over an extended period of time.
SG Chapter 4ReadingText describes the ways tree needles interact with the air around them and how the entire planet can be viewed as one huge system.
SG Chapter 5InvestigationStudents analyze the “ecosytem” they created.
TG Chapter 1ActivityStudents are asked to create a diagram of the water cycle.
B (9-12) #4: Analyze the impact of human and other activities on the type and pace of change in ecosystems. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 2ReadingThe chapter outlines the history of forest use in the pacific northwest, and how people have impacted the forest ecosystems there.
SG Chapter 2PhotosText contains numerous photos of 1800’s logging activities, modern day tree plantations, and old growth forests.
SG Chapter 2InvestigationStudents are asked to research the history of a particular tree and how it has been impacted by changes in the local environment, and how the local environment might be affected if the tree were cut down.
SG Chapter 3ReadingThe chapter focuses on the Headwaters Forest (an old growth stand) and the struggle to preserve or harvest it. It presents possible scenarios and the potential impacts.
SG Chapter 3MapsMaps show the reduction in the amount of old growth forest since 1620.
SG Chapter 3ActivityStudents are asked to write a letter in support of or in opposition to a proposed to protect part of the Headwaters Forest. Students analyze potential impacts and the relationship of rate of change to the impact in order to do this.
SG Chapter 4ReadingText outlines the U.S. Global Change Research Program and introduces some of the studies being done at the Wind River Crane Project.
SG Chapter 5ReadingA research project aimed at discovering the changes in intertidal ecosytems is introduced.
SG Chapter 5ActivityStudents asked to write an essay on an environmental issue that interests them. They are asked to consider the effects on themselves and on future generations.
Standard D: Continuity and Change
D (9-12) #3: Explain and document the importance of relatively short-term changes (e.g., one generation) on a species’ survival. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents create an “ecosystem” in a bottle and monitor it s progress over an extended period of time.
SG Chapter 2ReadingThe chapter outlines the history of forest use in the pacific northwest, and how people have impacted the forest ecosystems there. Individual species are mentioned, along with the ecosytems.
SG Chapter 2InvestigationStudents are asked to research the history of a particular tree and how it has been impacted by changes in the local environment, and how the local environment might be affected if the tree were cut down.
SG Chapter 3ReadingThe chapter focuses on the Headwaters Forest (an old growth stand) and the struggle to preserve or harvest it. It presents possible scenarios and the potential impacts.
SG Chapter 4ReadingText points out the differing effects of slow versus longer term change.
SG Chapter 5ActivityStudents asked to write an essay on an environmental issue that interests them. They are asked to consider the effects on themselves and on future generations.
Standard F: The Earth
F (9-12) #2: Analyze potential effects of changes in the earth’s oceans and atmosphere.
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter4ReadingDescribes NOAA’s interest in the Wind River Canopy Crane Project, and one researcher’s attempt to begin to more completely understand the interactions between the canopy and the atmosphere, and how one affects the other.
Standard J: Inquiry and Problem Solving
J (9-12) #1: Make accurate observations using appropriate tools and units of measure.
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents observe an “ecosystem” that they have created, design tests for variables, and record the results of those tests.
SG Chapter 2InvestigationStudents conduct a tree impact study on campus. They measure spread and diameter, and make general observations.
SG Chapter 5InvestigationStudents analyze the “ecosystem” that they have created.
J (9-12) #2: Verify, evaluate, and us e results in a purposeful way. This includes analyzing and interpreting data, making predictions based on observed patterns, testing solutions against the original problem conditions, and formulating additional questions.
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents observe an “ecosystem” that they have created, design tests for variables, and record the results of those tests.
SG Chapter 3ActivityStudents are asked to write a letter in support of or in opposition to an expensive proposal to protect part of the Headwaters Forest. Students analyze potential impacts and the relationship of rate of change to the impact in order to do this.
SG Chapter 5InvestigationStudents analyze the “ecosystem” that they have created.
SG Chapter 5ActivityStudents asked to write an essay on an environmental issue that interests them. They are asked to consider the effects on themselves and on future generations, based on the information that they gather.
Standard K: Scientific Reasoning
K (9-12) #1: Judge the accuracy of alternative explanations by identifying the evidence necessary to support them. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 2ReadingStudents are given perspectives from lumber industry and from environmentalist about the history of the pacific northwest forest use.
SG Chapter 2ActivityStudents are asked for their opinion of the building of roads into national forests both before and after reading the chapter.
SG Chapter 3ReadingThe chapter gives perspectives from the wood products industry as well as from environmental groups on the Head Waters Forest old growth ecosystem and the plan to log it. Students are encouraged to form their own opinion based on the information given.
SG Chapter 3ActivityStudents are asked to write a letter to the editor of a California newspaper supporting or opposing the harvesting of the Head Waters forest. They are encouraged to consider numerous perspectives and to support their position with evidence.
SG Chapter 5ActivityStudents asked to write an essay on an environmental issue from their local news. They are encouraged to consider controversies around the issue.
TG Chapter 3ActivityDiscussion of evidence neededto back up opinions on the Head Waters controversy.
K (9-12) #6: Analyze situations where more than one logical conclusion can be drawn
SourceHowAddressedComment
SG Chapter 2ActivityStudents are asked for their opinion of the building of roads into national forests both before and after reading the chapter.
SG Chapter 3ReadingThe chapter gives perspectives from the wood products industry as well as from environmental groups on the Head Waters Forest old growth ecosystem and the plan to log it. Students are encouraged to form their own opinion based on the information given.
SG Chapter 3ActivityStudents are asked to write a letter to the editor of a California newspaper supporting or opposing the harvesting of the Head Waters forest. They are encouraged to consider numerous perspectives and to support their position with evidence.
SG Chapter 5ActivityStudents asked to write an essay on an environmental issue from their local news. They are encouraged to consider controversies around the issue.
Standard L: Communication
L (9-12) #2: Use journals and self-assessment to describe and analyze scientific and technological experiences and to reflect on problem-solving processes.
SourceHowAddressedComment
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents are asked to keep a log of the changes in an “ecosystem” that they create in a bottle. They are asked to design tests for variables and reflect on the results over time.
SG ChapterInvestigationStudents are asked to write a report based on the findings and reflections in their log.
L (9-12) #3: Make and use appropriate symbols, pictures, diagrams, scale drawings, and models to represent and simplify real-life situations and to solve problems. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 1InvestigationStudents are asked to describe and diagram an ecosystem that they create in a bottle.
SG Chapter 2InvestigationStudents are asked to observe and create diagrams representing what they discover about a tree on campus.
SG Chapter 4DiagramsRepresentations of embedded systems.
SG Chapter 5InvestigationStudents are asked to create a report based on the results of studying their ecosystem in a bottle.
TG Chapter 4ActivityStudents are given a model of systems thinking and try an exercise using it.
L (9-12) #4: Employ graphs, tables, and maps in making arguments and drawing conclusions. 
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 3MapsMaps show the reduction in the amount of old growth forest since 1620.
Standard M: Implications of Science and Technology
M (9-12) #2: Demonstrate the importance of resource management, controlling environmental impacts, and maintaining natural ecosystems.
SourceHow AddressedComments
SG Chapter 1ReadingText describes how systems on the earth affect one another.
SG Chapter 3ReadingThe chapter focuses on the Headwaters Forest (an old growth stand) and the struggle to preserve or harvest it. It presents possible scenarios and the potential impacts.
SG Chapter 4ReadingThe chapter presents some of the research being done at the Wind River Canopy Crane project and why scientists there think that management and minimizing impacts could be important.
SG Chapter 5ReadingThe chapter focuses on the “Tragedy of the Commons.”
TG Chapter 5ActivityStudents are asked to discuss the idea of Earth as a “commons” in small groups.
M (9-12) #4: Analyze the impacts of various scientific and technological developments.
SourceHowAddressedComments
SG Chapter 2ReadingThe chapter details the history of logging in the pacific northwest, and includes information about advances in timber harvesting technology and its affects on the rate and area of harvesting.